Wednesday, 16 September 2015



Firstly, what is phobia?

Phobia- A phobia is an intense fear of something that, in reality, poses little or no actual danger. Common phobias and fears include closed-in places, heights, highway driving, flying insects, snakes, and needles. However, we can develop phobias of virtually anything. Most phobias develop in childhood, but they can also develop in adults

There are 3 type of phobia:

1) Agoraphobia - anxiety disorder in which you fear and often avoid places oor situations that might cause you to panic and make you feel trapped, helpless or embarrassed.

2) Social Phobia - Irritional anxiety elicited by exposure to certain types of social or performance situations, also leading to avoidance behavior.

3) Specific Phobia- Persistent and irrational fear in the presence of some specific stimulus which commonly elicits avoidance of that stimulus, i.e., withdrawal.

Saturday, 12 September 2015



grey hair, at young age? Feel like you don't have self-confidence to face the world with your hair?

This is what we want,right!Especially for girls who always want to always look beautiful

Hair colour is produced by cells known as melanocytes, which migrate into the hair bulb as the hair follicles develop in utero. The melanocytes produce pigment that is incorporated into the growing hair fibres to produce hair in a bewidering array of natural shades.

Hair colour depends on the presence and ratios of two groups of melanins; eumelanins(brown and black pigments) and pheomelanins (red and yellow pigments).
While variations in the ratio of these pigments can produce an large number of colours and tones, siblings often have strikingly similar hair colour.

Hair colour varies accordingly to body site,with eyelashes being darkest because they contain high levels of eumalanin. Scalp hair is usually lighter than pubic hair, which often has a red tinge, due to the presence of more phaeomelanin pigments. A red tinge is also common in underarm and beard hair, even in people with essentially brown hair on their scalp.

Hormones such  as melanocyte-stimulating hormone can darken light hair, as can high levels of oestrogen and progesterone, which are produced in pregnancy. Certain drugs such as those to prevent malaria can lighten hair, while some epilepsy medications can darken it.
siblings always have the similar hair colour

New parents often find the first coat of their baby's hair is darker than expected. It is not until this first hair is hshed and replaced, at around eight to twelve months of age, that you get a clear indication of their hair colour


Human hair growth is cyclical. During the anagen phase,hair growth continuously at a rate of 1cm per month. Anagen can last three to five years on the scalp and produce hair that grows to between 36 to 60 cm in length.
At the end of the anagen phase, the follicle turns off, hair growth stops and remains off for the three months. Towards the end of this resting (telogen) phase, the hair is shed and the follicle remains empty until the anagen phase of the cycles restarts.
Pigment production also turns on and off in rhythm with the hair cycle. When pigment cells turn off at the end of one hair cycle and fail to turn back on with the one set of the next, hair become GREY.


Greying of hair is a normal process. If your hair turns grey at a young age, it is called premature greying and needs medical attention.

15 Causes of Greying of Hair at younh age:

1) Thyroid disease - An underactive or overactive thyroid can affect melanin production in the hair and result in premature greying.
2) Vitamin B12 deficiency - Deficiency of B12 has been linked to premature greying of hair. Vitamin B12,zinc and copper are responsible for the nourishment of hair.

3) Genetic - The main reason for grey hair at early stage is genetic. The offspring is more prone to have grey hair earlier in life if its parents have the same problem.

4) Vitamin C and E - If the body suffering from lack of vitamin C and E, then hair turns grey. Their deficiency can decrease the amount of melanin producing cells and thereby cause grey hair.

5) Smoking - Smoking is also of the factors responsible for premature greying of hair. Smoking prodces free radicals in the body of the smoker and these free radicals decreases melanin.

6) Junk food - Junk food is one of the factors of greying hair at young age. Junk foods or processed food accelerate ageing by decreasing the production of melanin in hair.

7) Stress - Stress can have many effects and one of them is hair loss and premature greying. Shock, sorrow and anxiety can reduce the amount of melanin cells.

8) Faulty diet - Not having a well-balanced diet means you are lacking many nutrients. When your body doesn't get the proper supply of vitamins and minerals, it stop functioning properly.

9) Excessive use of hair iron and electric dryer - This makes the hair shaft weak. The heat produced by them can affect melanin production in hair and cause premature greying.

10) Dirty condition of the scalp - An unclean scalp due to insufficient hygiene may be another cause for premature hair greying.

11) Hair dyes - frequent use of hair dyes can damage hair.The chemicals present in then can also damage the melanin cells.

12) Washing hair with hard water - Minerals and oxidiser present in hard water cause hair fall, dry, dull, thin and frizzy hair.

13) Hormonal unbalance - Hormonal changes greatly contribute to the condition of your skin and hair. Any major hormonal changes in body in conditions such as pregnancy or thyroid disease.

14) Early menopause - women who suffer from early menopause are at risk of premature greying and may need medical attention.

15) Folic acid deficiency - folic acid is essential for many bodily processes. A deficiency of this vitamin may not only slow your hair's growth. 

So, why doesn’t pigment production turn back on?
At the end of each hair cycle, some pigment-producing melanocytes become damaged and die. If the melanocyte stem cell reservoir at the top of the hair follicle can replenish the bulb, this keeps pigment production going. But when the reservoir of stem cells is exhausted, pigment production stops and the hair turns grey.
Scientists have long known that in order to prevent hair from going grey they would need to either prolong the life of the melanocytes in the hair bulb – by protecting them from injury – or expand the melanocyte stem cell reservoir in the upper or top region of the hair follicle so they continue to replace lost pigment cells.
A group of French scientists have identified a new series of agents that protect hair follicle melanocytes from damage at the end of the hair cycle. This enables pigment production to restart as soon as the next hair cycle begins.
The agents work by mimicking the action of an enzyme called DOPAchrome tautomerase. This enzyme is the naturally occurring antioxidant in the hair bulb that protects melanocytes from oxidative damage. By duplicating the effects of DOPAchrome tautomerase, melanocyte metabolism and survival improves.
The new agents are being formulated into a product that can be applied as a spray-on serum or shampoo. But they won’t re-colour grey hair or bring back the dead cells that produce hair colour. Instead, they protect your melanocytes.
So for those who cannot find it within themselves to embrace the salt and pepper look, new options are on the horizon.

This is a video about additional information on how to treat premature greying of hair.

Friday, 11 September 2015


a) rocky moutain spotted fever (legs)

b) acne vulgaris nodulpcystic

c) baby acne

d) cystic acne

e) erythematous deep acne

f) ice pick scars

g) hidradenitis suppurativa

h) furuncle (S.Aureus)

i) rosacea 1

j) rosacea 2

k) folliculitis

l) bartonellosis

m) impetigo

n) transient neonatal pustular melanosis

o) eosinophilic pustular folliculitis

p) infantile acropustulosis

q) miliaria krystallina

r) miliaria rubra (prickly heat)

s) scarlet fever

t) pitted keratolysis

u) lepromatous leprosy

v) Leishmaniasis

w) periorbital dermatitis

x) sebaceous hyperplasia

~ That's all~

you can find the best treatment on the APPROVED health sites

Friday, 4 September 2015



A NIGHTMARE for a teenager is when there are pimples on their faces

A pimple on the cheek is the biggest crisis in a teenager's life. We all wish for clear,silky,smooth skin.

What is Acne (Pimples) ? 
Acne is defined in many ways. Can be characterized by the appearance of pimples,area of red scarly skin,nodules or papules, or blackheads that could leave scars on the skin. These appear in the areas of sebaceous glands like the face, chest, and back.

Is a common acne chronic disease involving blockage and/or inflamation of Sebaceous units (hair follicles and their accompanying sebaceous gland). Acne can resent as noninflammatory lesions, inflammatory lesions, or a mixture of both, affecting mostly the face but also the back and chest that affects ALMOST TEENAGERS DURING PUBERTY .

Acne appears on skin as..
a) Occuluded pores (comedones)  also known as whiteheads or blackheads
b) Tender red bumps also known as pimples or zits
c) pustules, and ocassionally as cysts (deep pimples, boils )

What Does Acne Look Like?

Acne can appear as one of the following:

Whitehead:  White dots that are pores impacted with oil and skin covered by skin layers.

Blackhead: Black bumps that are pores in which material pushes out through the follicles. The black colour is not from dirt. It may be from bacteria, dead skin cells, and matter that react with oxygen.

Papules,pustules or nodules: More lesions appearing red and swollen due to inflammation or infection of the tissue aroud the clogged follicles, which are often painful and feel hard.

Cysts: Deep, pus-filled pimples.

Why Do some People Get Acne and Others Don't?
     It is not clear why some people are more prone to acne than others.
The exact cause of acne is not known,but hormones called androgens can play a role. Androgens increase in both boys and girls during puberty. Androgens make the skin's oil glands get larger and make more sebum. Androgens also can increase because of hormonal changes related to pregnancy or starting or stopping birth control pills.

-Genetics may also matter. If your parents had acne, you may inherited that tendency.
-Some medications (for examples, epilepsy medication, prednisone, androgens taken as medicine, and lithium) can cause acne.
- Cosmetics that have a greasy consistency may also clog pores. Water-based products are less likely to cause acne than oil-based makeup.

Other things that can make acne worse include:

-Friction caused by leaning on or rubbing the skin; harsh scrubbing
-Picking or squeezing blemishes
-Pressure from bike helmets, backpacks, or tight collars
-Changing hormone levels in adolescent girls and adult women two to seven days before the start of the menstrual period

In occasional patients, the following may be contributing factors:
  • Heredity: If one of your parents had severe acne, it is likely that your acne will be more difficult to control.
  • Pressure: In some patients, pressure from helmets, chin straps, collars, suspenders, and the like can aggravate acne.
  • Drugs: Some medications may cause or worsen acne, such as those containing iodides, bromides, or oral or injected steroids (either the medically prescribed prednisone [Deltasone, Orasone, Prednicen-M,Liquid Pred] or the steroids that bodybuilders or athletes sometimes take). Other drugs that can cause or aggravate acne areanticonvulsant medications and lithium (Eskalith, Lithobid). Most cases of acne, however, are not drug related.
  • Occupations: In some jobs, exposure to industrial products like cutting oils may produce acne.
  • Cosmetics: Some cosmetics and skin-care products are pore clogging ("comedogenic"). Of the many available brands of skin-care products, it is important to read the list of ingredients and choose those which have water listed first or second if you are concerned about acne. These "water-based" products are usually best for those with acne. Continue Reading

1)  Not trying an acne treatment long enough

2) Trying too many products at once

3) Over-scrubbing and Over-cleansing the Skin

4) Choosing wrong product for acne-prone

5) Popping or picking on pimples

6) Wait too long to see a dermatologist

7) Over-using or under-using a prescribed medication

How To Get Rid of Pimples- 10 easy ways

Thursday, 20 August 2015



The figure above is a healthy throat

Sore throat is whether caused bacteria infection or viruses. No matter what age you are, sore throat can be exprienced by everyone.
A = pharynx
B = uvala  
C = tongue
D = tonsils

Sore throat can spread through a few ways;

a) Drinks sharing
b) Coughing
c) Sneezing
d) Chicken pox (for certain cases)
e) Kissing
What causes a sore throat?Sore throat is an indication of frequent inscription of antibiotics that can cause the increases of endurance of antimicrobial with a wide spread and also the uses of unsuitable antibiotics.

Other reasons for a sore throat are;

a) Pollution- Contiminates the air and can irritate the throat.
b) Allergy- Hay fever and allergy sufferers may get an irritated throat during allergic attack.
c) Cigarette smoke- A major irritant of the airways and make both viral and bacterial more likely.
d) Changes in temperature- Such as going from warm centrally heated room to the icy outdoors can affect         the throat.
e) Overuse of the vocal cords- Through singing or shouting  can lead to inflammation.

is an inflammation of two oval-shaped pads of tissue at the back of the throat.
The above figure is one of the serious sore throat that need a specific antibiotic in order to prevent it getting worst.

The bacteria that causes most of sore throats is called, streptoccocus group A (strep A).
Symptoms of sore throats are;

a) Painful red throat
b) Difficulty in swallowing food
c) Fever
d) Headache
e) abdomen hurt
f) Nausea and vomitting
g) Swollen tonsils
h) Swollen lymphs glands and neck stiffness

Treatment to make sore throat better;

a) Drink plenty of non-alchoholic fluids
b) Gargle with warm salty water
c) If you have the temperature,take paracetamol to reduce it. It is safe to use paracetamol.
d) Adults may try gargling with soluble aspirin before swallowing it.
e) Suck throat lozenges.
f) Use throat spray.
g) Do not smoke.
h) Drink alchohol.


a)  Lemonade + Honey - Take a glass of warm water and mix it with lime juice extraction. Add a spoonful of honey. If the honey bee ori tu're good. Practice drinking lemonade is 3 times a day.
2) Tamarind - Mix one tablespoon of tamarind into a glass of water. Stir and let stand for a moment and then filter. The tamarind juice. Tamarind is good for soothing the throat.
3) Gargle with salt water - Mix a teaspoon of salt in a glass of water and gargle salt water. This method can relieve itching in the throat.
4) Cucumber juice - Blend cucumber juice and drink. If lazy to grind, peeled cucumber skin je tu and eat raw. Add a pinch of salt. Cucumber is among its advantages is that it can relieve pain checkmate.

Saturday, 8 August 2015